Research Overview

Research Overview

Background

Background of Next Generation Refrigerants

  • Beginning in the 1930s, Appearance of novel refrigerants

    CFC(Chlorofluorocarbon)and HCFC(Hydrochlorofluorocarbon)

    Problem: (1980s) Ozone Layer Depletion

  • Solution: Appearance of non-chlorine fluorocarbons

    HFC (HydroFuoroCarbon) refrigerants and their mixtures

    Problem: (2000s) Global Warming

  • Solution: Appearance of Low GWP Refrigerants

    HFO (HydroFluoro Olefin) refrigerants and their mixtures

    Problem: Flammability and Safety

At the present, our task is to find out the following next generation refrigerants:

  • (1) Low ODP
    (Ozone Depletion Potential)
  • (2) Low GWP
    (Global Warming Potential)
  • (3) Non-flammable or Mild flammable
  • (4) No toxicity
  • Paris Agreement Kigali Amendment MOP 28, COP 22

The relation between refrigerants and global environment issues was simply summarized.
CFC and HCFC, were developed as a working fluid of a refrigerating and air-conditioning system, and contributes to our improvement in a life greatly by the existence.
However, it is tending toward the worse global environment as if it was regrettably in inverse proportion to our life improving.
Refrigerant is related to these two global environment issues; ozone layer depletion and global warming.
Therefore, at present, our essential duty is to develop low-ODP, low-GWP, and inflammable next generation refrigerants without toxicity.

Scheme for Development of New Refrigerants

Scheme for commercializing new refrigerants (including mixed refrigerants)

1. Selection of the candidate for new generation refrigerants

Discover a new refrigerant

2. Measurements of thermodynamic and transport properties

Measure its thermophysical properties with high accuracy

  • ■ I²CNER:PvT property, saturated vapor pressure, saturated density, critical point, vapor-liquid equilibrium
  • ■ Toyama Prefecutural University:vapor-liquid equilibrium, PvT property
  • ■ Nihon University:specific heat capacity
  • ■ National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology(AIST):speed of sound
  • ■ Nagasaki University:surface tension
  • ■ Saga University: thermal conductivity, viscosity
  • ■ Overseas organizations:The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (USA)、Marche Polytechnic University (Italy)、Mines Paris Tech (France)

3. Establishment of equation of state

Calculate and formulate the excellent equation of state

  • ■ Kyushu Sangyo University
  • ■ The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (USA)
  • ■ The Catholic University of America (USA)
  • ■ Braunschweig University of Technology (Germany)

4. Clarification of heat transfer characteristics

Evaluate heat transfer performance

  • ■ I²CNER
  • ■ Sagal University
  • ■ Nagasaki University
  • ■ Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
  • ■ University of Padua (Italy)

5. Cycle performance test and drop-in test

Evaluate cycle performance and conduct drop-in test

  • ■ I²CNER
  • ■ Kyushu Sangyo University

Goal: Establishment of a fundamental technology for actual use of the next generation refrigerants